Inductive Logic

A Thematic Compilation by Avi Sion

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Blog posts : "Causation"

9. Actual Induction


1.       The Problem

Induction is the branch of Logic concerned with determining how general propositions — and, more broadly, how necessary propositions — are established as true, from particular or potential data.

By ‘actual induction’, I mean induction of actual propositio…

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10. Modal Induction


1.       Knowability

Some skeptical philosophers have attempted to write-off natural necessity, and potentiality, as unknowable, if not meaningless. We have shown the meaningfulness and importance of these concepts, in the preceding pages. Here, we will begin to show systematically …

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12. Formula Revision


1.       Context Changes

As knowledge evolves, our position shifts from one set of givens to another, and the inductive or deductive conclusion concerning any subject to predicate relation must be adapted to the new situation. All knowledge is contextual and tentative, anyway, in pr…

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13. Phenomena


This chapter confronts certain ontological issues.


1.       Empirical or Hypothetical

A basic principle of science is that we may rely on empirical evidence, and indeed that all our hypotheses must ultimately be grounded in experience. This means that we attach special cred…

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14. Consciousness and the Mind


My purpose here is to propose a consistent framework and terminology for epistemology.


1.       A Relation

Consciousness is a specific, peculiar kind of relation between an entity like ourselves (called the Subject); and any ‘appearance’, ‘phenomenon’, ‘thing’ which present…

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15. Perception and Recognition


In this chapter, I want to specify some of the logical preconditions for any theory of knowledge. Some such criteria have of course been developed throughout the present treatise, here my concern is with issues relating to the role of the nervous system.

The intent is not to present a com…

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18. Introduction to Phenomenology


1.    What, Why and How

Phenomenology may be defined as the study of appearances as such. By an ‘appearance’ is meant any existent which impinges on consciousness, anything cognized, irrespective of any judgment as to whether it be ‘real’ or ‘illusory’. The evaluation of a particular a…

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19. Organizing Principles


1.    The Order of Things

Philosophy cannot answer its basic questions any old how; it must proceed in stages, in such a way that its own assertions and implicit assumptions are equally addressed. If a philosopher does not take account of the order of things in his mind or knowledge, h…

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20. Experiences and Abstractions


In the present chapter[1], we shall try and classify appearances in various ways (please refer to the Diagrams shown in the previous chapter, which provide a useful summaries and illustrations). The objects of knowledge, contents of consciousness, or appearances to cognition, include: first…

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21. Conceptualization


In the present chapter, we shall try and clarify the processes of conceptualization, i.e. how we develop abstract ideas from the data of experience. Many philosophers have previously attempted this difficult task, but have strayed into error or irrelevancy due to their failure to grasp all t…

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23. The Paradigm of Causation


1.    Causation

Causality refers to causal relations, i.e. the relations between causes and effects. This generic term has various, more specific meanings. It may refer to Causation, which is deterministic causality; or to Volition, which is (roughly put) indeterministic causality; or …

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24. The Determinations of Causation


1.    Strong Determinations

The strongest determination of causation, which we identified as the paradigm of causation, may be called complete and necessary causation. We shall now repeat the three constituent propositions of this form and their implications, all of which must be true …

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25. Some LC Phase One Insights


1.    The Significance of Certain Findings

Let us review how we have proceeded so far. We started with the paradigm of causation, namely, complete necessary causation. We then abstracted its constituent “determinations,” the complete and the necessary aspects of it, and by negation for…

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26. Some LC Phase Two Insights


In this chapter, my purpose is to break some additional ground, discussing certain outstanding issues in causation without attempting to exhaust them at this time.


1.    On Laws of Causation

The expression ‘law of causation’ can also be applied to each and every theorem we hav…

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27. Knowledge of Volition, Etc.


1.    Knowledge of Volition

There is little mystery left as to how to theoretically define causation and how we get to establish it in practice. A mixture of epistemological and ontological issues is involved, which are resolved with relative ease. Causation in general may be expressed…

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29. About Causation


1.    Hume’s Critique

Hume’s denials

David Hume denies the very concept of causality – but in the same breath offers us an explanation of our belief in it, viz. that causal argument proceeds by association of ideas. I have criticized this claim elsewhere[1], but here wish to s…

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31. The Significance of Negation


1.    Formal Consequences

Returning to logic – our insight here into the nature of negation can be construed to have formal consequences. The negative term is now seen to be a radically different kind of term, even though in common discourse it is made to behave like any other term.

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33. More Reflections on Induction


1.    The Psychology of Induction

Hume tried his best to do away with the science of induction by psychologizing our understanding of it. Of course, there is a psychology of induction, since humans have a psyche and induce. But Hume attempted to reduce induction to psychological mechan…

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34. Contrary to Kant’s Unreason


1.    Experience, Space and Time

Among Kant’s fundamental errors was his assumption that empirical data is initially without unity, being a confused mass of myriad sensations, and that it needs to be united by rational means of some sort, before it can at all constitute an object of …

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