Inductive Logic

A Thematic Compilation by Avi Sion

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Blog posts January 2018

Table of Contents



1.       The Laws of Thought

1.      The Law of Identity

2.      The Law of Contradiction

3.      The Law of the Excluded Middle

2.       Credibility

1.      Ground of the Laws

2.      Functions of the Laws

3.      More on C…

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Rationalism and empiricism are not at odds; but, on the contrary, deeply mutually dependent. True rationalism is firmly grounded in experience; and true empiricism is made possible by application of reason. Induction is the methodological bridge between experience and reason.

Most of my l…

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1. The Laws of Thought


Logic is founded on certain ‘laws of thought’, which were first formulated by Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher. We shall describe them separately here, and later consider their collective significance.


1.    The Law of Identity

The Law of Identity is an imperative t…

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2. Credibility


1.    Ground of the Laws

We began our study by presenting the laws of thought — the Laws of Identity, of Contradiction, and of the Excluded Middle — as the foundations of logic. We can see, as we proceed, that these first principles are repeatedly appealed to in reasoning and validatio…

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3. Logical Modality


1.    The Singular Modalities

The concepts of ‘logical modality’ enable us to predict systematically all the ways credibility may arise in knowledge over the long-term. Credibility itself is not a type of modality, but the ground and outcome of logical modality. We shall immediately de…

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4. Contextuality


1.    Statics

We defined logical modalities with reference to the relative credibilities of appearances ‘within contexts’. We will here try to clarify what constitutes a context, and its role.

In a very narrow, ‘logical’ sense, one might refer to the context of a proposition as …

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5. Adduction


1.    Logical Probability

Induction, in the widest sense, is concerned with finding the probable implications of theses. Deduction may then be viewed as the ideal or limiting case of induction, when the probability is maximal or 100%, so that the conclusion is necessary. In a narrower …

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6. Theory Formation


1.       Theorizing

Every theory involves an act of imagination. We go beyond the given data, and try to mentally construct a new image of reality capable of embracing the empirical facts. The nimbler our imagination, the greater our chances of reaching truth. Think how many people …

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7. Theory Selection


1.       The Scientific Method

The ‘scientific method’ consists in trying out every conceivable imaginary construct, and seeing which of them keep fitting all new facts, and which do not. Those which cease to fit, must be eliminated (or at least corrected). Those which continue to f…

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8. Synthetic Logic


1.       Synthesis

Knowledge requires inquisitiveness and creativity. It cannot advance far inertially. The role of the knower is to actively ask questions and look for answers, not to sit back passively and assume all is well. Knowledge is a constructive activity.

In forming one…

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9. Actual Induction


1.       The Problem

Induction is the branch of Logic concerned with determining how general propositions — and, more broadly, how necessary propositions — are established as true, from particular or potential data.

By ‘actual induction’, I mean induction of actual propositio…

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10. Modal Induction


1.       Knowability

Some skeptical philosophers have attempted to write-off natural necessity, and potentiality, as unknowable, if not meaningless. We have shown the meaningfulness and importance of these concepts, in the preceding pages. Here, we will begin to show systematically …

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11. Factor Selection


1.       Prediction

We indicated in the previous chapter that induction depends on factorial analysis of our knowledge context. Once this is done, we are usually faced with a number of factors to choose from, which represent the various outcomes our knowledge may move towards.


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12. Formula Revision


1.       Context Changes

As knowledge evolves, our position shifts from one set of givens to another, and the inductive or deductive conclusion concerning any subject to predicate relation must be adapted to the new situation. All knowledge is contextual and tentative, anyway, in pr…

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13. Phenomena


This chapter confronts certain ontological issues.


1.       Empirical or Hypothetical

A basic principle of science is that we may rely on empirical evidence, and indeed that all our hypotheses must ultimately be grounded in experience. This means that we attach special cred…

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14. Consciousness and the Mind


My purpose here is to propose a consistent framework and terminology for epistemology.


1.       A Relation

Consciousness is a specific, peculiar kind of relation between an entity like ourselves (called the Subject); and any ‘appearance’, ‘phenomenon’, ‘thing’ which present…

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15. Perception and Recognition


In this chapter, I want to specify some of the logical preconditions for any theory of knowledge. Some such criteria have of course been developed throughout the present treatise, here my concern is with issues relating to the role of the nervous system.

The intent is not to present a com…

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16. The Logic of Induction


1.    Degrees of Being

Before determining where the philosophy of science stands today, I would like to highlight and review some of the crucial findings of our own research in this volume.

The first thing to note are the implications of certain of our findings in modal logic. We sa…

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17. An Inductive Logic Primer


1.    Introduction

The reader of the present volume does not need to have previously studied logic in depth to be able to follow the discussion fully, but will still need to grasp certain concepts and terminologies. We will try to fulfill this specific task here, while reminding the re…

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18. Introduction to Phenomenology


1.    What, Why and How

Phenomenology may be defined as the study of appearances as such. By an ‘appearance’ is meant any existent which impinges on consciousness, anything cognized, irrespective of any judgment as to whether it be ‘real’ or ‘illusory’. The evaluation of a particular a…

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